Which of the following are protective swallowing mechanisms?

What are some protective swallowing mechanisms?

Deglutitive airway protective mechanisms include glottal closure, epiglottal descent, and anterosuperior displacement of the larynx. Aspiration of swallowed material may occur during the pre-, intra-, or postpharyngeal phase of swallowing.

What are all the mechanisms of airway protection during swallowing?

The airway is protected by maximum glottal closure during vomiting. During swallowing, the airway is protected by laryngeal elevation and glottal closure followed by brief opening of the glottis, which may release subglottal pressure expelling material from the laryngeal vestibule.

What are the protective airway reflexes?

These reflexes consist of laryngeal closure, laryngospasm, apnea, cough or expiration reflex, and swallowing reflex. They can be categorized into the airway protective reflex, which is beneficial in protecting the lower airway from inhaling noxious substances.

What is the purpose of protective swallowing mechanisms?

There are several airway protective mechanisms preventing aspiration of the foreign materials to the trachea before or during swallowing. The vocal folds close to seal the glottis (space between the vocal folds) and the arytenoids tilt forward to contact the epiglottic base prior to opening of the UES.

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What are the signs of dysphagia?

Other signs of dysphagia include:

  • coughing or choking when eating or drinking.
  • bringing food back up, sometimes through the nose.
  • a sensation that food is stuck in your throat or chest.
  • persistent drooling of saliva.
  • being unable to chew food properly.
  • a gurgly, wet-sounding voice when eating or drinking.

How can we protect airway from aspiration?

In respiratory therapy school, we learn that translaryngeal intubation augments ventilation, bypasses airway obstruction, facilitates the removal of tracheal secretions, and—if the airway has an inflatable cuff—protects the patient from aspiration pneumonia.

What does it mean to protect your airway?

It is endangered by blood, secretions, vomitus, inflamed tissue, or a foreign body. If you insert a tube from the outside to the inside to open up the upper airways and the patient doesn’t need supplemental oxygen or increased ventilation, then that is airway protection.

What are the structures that prevent aspiration?

The important structures that protect against aspiration include the aerodigestive apparatus: pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, glottis and vocal cords, and airway. There are several stimulatory reflexes involving the pharynx, esophagus, and larynx that prevent pulmonary aspiration.

Is cough a reflex?

Cough is a reflex arc, which acts as a defensive physiological mechanism against the inhalation of foreign bodies and the pathogens of the respiratory tract.

What mechanisms protect the respiratory system from infection?

Cilia propel a liquid layer of mucus that covers the airways. The mucus layer traps pathogens (potentially infectious microorganisms) and other particles, preventing them from reaching the lungs.

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What ensures the protection of air passage?

If it goes in the nostrils (also called nares), the air is warmed and humidified. Tiny hairs called cilia (SIL-ee-uh) protect the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose through the breathed air.

How does the swallowing process work?

When you swallow, a flap called the epiglottis moves to block the entrance of food particles into your larynx and lungs. The muscles of the larynx pull upward to assist with this movement. They also tightly close during swallowing. That prevents food from entering your lungs.

What is the swallowing process?

Swallowing is the process by which food is transported from the mouth to the stomach. … The transport phase includes transport of the swallowed food bolus through the esophagus into the stomach. Anatomically, swallowing has been divided into three phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal.

What are the stages of dysphagia?

Healthcare providers describe it in 3 phases:

  • Oral preparatory phase. During this phase, you chew your food to a size, shape, and consistency that can be swallowed. …
  • Pharyngeal phase. Here, the muscles of your pharynx contract in sequence. …
  • Esophageal phase.